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Abrasion: area where skin or other tissue is scraped away

Absorb: Take up fluids, take in

Absorption: the way a drug or other substance enters the body

Acidosis: Condition when blood contains more acid than normal

Acoumeter: tool used to measure hearing

Acuity: Clearness, keenness, especially of vision – airways

Acute: New, recent, sudden

Adenopathy: Swollen lymph nodes (glands)

Adhesion: tissue stuck together

Adjuvant treatment: Added treatment

Adjuvant: Helpful, assisting, aiding

Adrenal gland: gland found over each kidney

Adverse Effect: Unwanted effect

Albuminuria: protein in the urine

Allergen: A substance that gets into the body and activates the immune system, which produces an allergic reaction.

Allergic Reaction: Rash, trouble breathing

Allergy: oversensitivity to a substance

Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protein that is made in the liver. The liver releases this protein into the bloodstream. Alpha-1 antitrypsin protects the lungs so they can work normally. Without enough alpha-1 antitrypsin, the lungs can be damaged, and this damage may make breathing difficult. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an inherited (passed down from parents) disorder that causes low levels of, or no alpha-1 antitrypsin in the blood.

Ambulate: Walk, able to walk

Amino acid: a substance used by the body to make protein

Amniocentesis: removal of some of the waters from around an unborn baby for laboratory testing

Analgesic: drug used to control pain

Anaphylaxis: Serious, potentially life threatening allergic reaction

Anemia: decreased number of red blood cells

Anesthesia: loss of sensation or feeling

Anesthetic (general): A drug or agent used to decrease the feeling of pain or eliminate the feeling of pain by putting you to sleep

Anesthetic (local): A drug or agent used to decrease the feeling of pain by numbing an area of your body, without putting you to sleep

Anesthetic: drug is used to produce loss of pain sensation

Angioplasty: surgery to open up a narrow blood vessel

Anoxia: no oxygen

Antacid: drug used to decrease acid in the stomach

Antibiotic: drug used to stop or slow down the growth of germs

Antibody: type of protein that helps protect the body against foreign matter, such as bacteria and viruses

Antibody: A substance produced by the body to fight infection. A monoclonal antibody is a laboratory-produced antibody that reacts against cancer cells

Antigen: A substance that, when introduced into the body, stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs.

Antihistamine: drug used to treat allergic reactions

Antimicrobial: Drug that kills bacteria and other germs

Antiseptic: substance used to stop or slow down the growth of germs

Aphasia: not able to speak or write and not able to understand spoken or written words

Artery: type of blood vessel that carries blood and oxygen from the heart to the rest of the body

Arthritis: inflammation of one or more joint

Asphyxia: suffocation

Assay: lab test

Atrioventricular block: a disorder that blocks certain signals in the heart and causes problems in heart rhythm.

Atrophy: wasting away, or decrease in size, of a body organ

Audiogram: report of a hearing test

Audiology: the study of hearing

Audiometer: tool used to measure hearing

Autoantibody: A chemical or molecule (“body”) of protein that attacks (“anti”) healthy cells or tissues (“auto” from the Greek word for “self”).

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Bacteria: types of germs

Benign: not malignant, usually without serious consequences

Beta blocker: drug used to slow down the heart

Bilateral: having to do with both sides of the body

Biopsy: a small amount of tissue removed for laboratory testing

Bolus: an amount given all at once

Bone marrow: soft tissue inside bones that makes blood cells

Bone Mass: The amount of calcium in a given amount of bone

Bradyarrhythmias: Slow irregular heart beats

Bradycardia: Slow heartbeat

Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchi

Bronchospasm: Breathing distress caused by narrowing of the airways

Bronchus: tube that carries air from the windpipe to the lungs

Bulimia: eating disorder in which a person cannot stop eating and often vomits to make room for more food

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Calcipenia: low in calcium

Cancer radiotherapy: treatment of cancer using X rays

Capillary: tiny blood vessel

Carbohydrate: The body’s primary source of energy and, along with fat and protein, one of the three major nutrients in the human diet. There are different types of carbohydrate, starches and sugars, and they are found in breads, cereals, rice, pasta, fruits, milk, and yogurt and sweets.

Carcinogenic: Capable of causing cancer

Carcinoma: Type of cancer

Cardiac: having to do with the heart

Cardioversion: Restoration of normal heart beat by electric shock

Carpal bones: wrist bones

Cataract: clouding of the lens of the eye

Catheter: A very thin tube usually about the size of a needle inserted through the skin into a vein for withdrawing or giving fluids or medicine. Epidural Catheter: A very thin tube usually about the size of a needle inserted through the skin near the spinal cord to give anesthesia, a painkilling or numbing medication.

Cell: The basic subunit of any living organism; the simplest unit that can exist as an independent living system.

Cephalalgia: headache

Cerebellum: the part of the brain that controls the movement of the muscles and helps maintain balance

Cerebral trauma: Damage to the brain

Chemotherapy: Treatment of disease, usually cancer, by chemical agents

Chloasma: tumor arising from the skin and other organs

Chromosome: See genetic information.

Chronic: lasting a long time

Clavicle: collarbone

Clinical trial: an experiment with patients

Clinical: Pertaining to medical care or based on medical observation or treatment

Complete response: Total disappearance of disease

Consolidation: Treatment phases intended to make a remission Phase: permanent, follows induction

Contraindications: medical reasons that prevent a person from using a certain drug or treatment

Contrast agent: A substance injected as part of certain scanning procedures. A contrast agent is like a dye and makes certain parts of the body show up better when a scan is done.

Control: A condition or procedure that is compared with a research treatment or procedure.

Controlled trial: study in which the experimental procedures are compared to a standard (accepted) treatment or procedure

Contusion: bruise

Cooperative Group: Association of multiple institutions to perform clinical trials

Cornea: clear tissue covering the front part of the eye

Coronary: Pertains to the blood vessels that supply the heart

CT Scan (CAT): Computerized series of x-rays

Culture: Test for infection or organisms that could cause infection

Cumulation: increased action of a drug when given over a period of time

Cytoid: like a cell

Cytokine: This is a type of compound made by the body as part of its immune function. A cytokine is produced by certain cells when they come into contact with threatening substances in the body such as bacteria.

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Decubitus: Lying down. D. Ulcer: bed sore; pressure sore

Demographic: Information about your lifestyle and general characteristics

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): material that makes up the genes

Depressant: drug that slows down the action of the central nervous system

Diabetes Mellitus: A disease that occurs when the body is not able to use sugar as it should. The body needs sugar for growth and energy for daily activities. It gets sugar when it changes food into glucose (a form of sugar). A hormone called insulin is needed for the glucose to be taken up and used by the body. Diabetes occurs when the body cannot make use of the glucose in the blood for energy because either the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin or the insulin that is available is not effective. The beta cells in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans usually make insulin.

Diastolic: Lower number in blood pressure reading

Distal: Toward the end, away from the center of the body

Diuretic: Water pill or drug that causes increase in urination

DNA (“deoxyribonucleic acid”): The part of the all cells that contains all the information about what the cell is and what it does. It is composed of proteins that are grouped in different ways. It is generally pictured as a long ladder that is twisted like a spiral.

Doppler: Sound waves

Double-blind trial: test or experiment in which neither investigators nor subjects know which drug the subject is receiving

Duct: tube that carries a body fluid

Dysplasia: abnormal cells

Dyspnea: Shortness of breath; breathlessness; airway obstruction; difficulty breathing; winded; trouble breathing

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Echocardiogram: Sound wave test of the heart. There are no known harmful effects. Images are obtained with a small device about the size of a bar of soap (“transducer”) that is attached by a cord to a computer. A slippery gel is spread over the area being examined, and the small device is pressed firmly against the skin and moved across the area being examined.

Edema: Swelling from fluid collecting in the body at certain places.

Efficacy: Effectiveness, how well something works

Electrocardiogram (ECG): picture of the electrical action of the heart

Electrode: A small device that detects electrical activity in your body

Electroencephalogram (EEG): picture of brain wave activity

Electrolyte imbalance: The amount of minerals in the blood are not at normal levels

Embolus: blood clot

Emesis: vomiting

Empiric: Based on experience

Endorphin: substance made by the body to stop pain

Endoscopic: Examination of an internal part of the body with a lighted tube

Enteral: By way of the intestines

Enzyme: A substance produced by the body to assist in breaking down chemicals.

Epidermal: having to do with the outer layer of skin

Epidermis: outer layer of skin

Epidural: Outside of the spinal cord

Erythema: Redness of the skin that is often a sign of infection or inflammation (irritation).

Esophagus: The passageway between the mouth and the stomach, or “food pipe.”

Expedited review: Review of a study by an IRB chair or vice-chair instead of the full Board, which is permitted with research considered to be no greater than minimal risk.

Extravasate: To leak outside of a blood vessel

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FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the branch of federal government that approves new drugs

Fibrillation: Irregular beat of the heart or other muscle

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Gangrene: Decay of tissue caused by lack of blood supply, and usually following injury or disease.

Gene: A small part of the information in DNA that is passed on during reproduction of all living things. Genes determine certain characteristics, such as eye color or the likelihood of having certain health problems. Also, if genes change in an abnormal way, health problems like cancer can occur. Alternative: A gene is the code present in each cell in your body and controls the behavior of that cell.

General Anesthesia: A state of unconsciousness, which is carefully controlled by the anesthesiologist with a mixture of very potent drugs, to prevent or lessen pain.

Genetics or genetic information: All cells contain a group of substances, including DNA, chromosomes, and genes that shape identity and can be passed on to other cells. For example, these substances determine the pattern of your fingerprints and the color of your eyes. The study of this is called genetics.

Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to see if a person has diabetes. The test is given in a lab or doctor’s office in the morning before the person has eaten. A first sample of blood is taken from the person. Then the person drinks a liquid that has glucose (sugar) in it. After one hour, a second blood sample is drawn, and, after another hour, a third sample is taken. The object is to see how well the body deals with the glucose in the blood over time.

Glucose: A simple sugar found in the blood. It is the body’s main source of energy; also known as dextrose.

Gynecologist: doctor who treats disorders of the sex organs of women

Gynecology: the study of the reproductive system of women

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Hematocrit: Amount of red blood cells in the blood

Hematologist: doctor who treats blood disorders

Hematoma: a bruise, a black-and-blue mark

Hemodynamic: Measurements of blood flow

Hemoglobin: The iron-containing respiratory pigment in red blood cells

Hemolysis: Breakdown in red blood cells

Heparin lock: needle placed in the arm with blood thinner to keep the blood from clotting

Hepatoma: Cancer or tumor of the liver

Holter Monitor: A portable machine for recording heart beat

Hypercalcemia: High blood calcium level

Hyperkalemia: High blood potassium level

Hypernatremia: High blood sodium level

Hyperopia: farsightedness

Hypertension: high blood pressure

Hypocalcemia: Low blood calcium level

Hypodermic: under the skin

Hypoglycemia: not enough sugar in the blood

Hypokalemia: Low blood potassium level

Hyponatremia: Low blood sodium level

Hypotension: low blood pressure

Hypothermia: low body temperature

Hypoxemia: A decrease of oxygen in the blood

Hypoxia: A decrease of oxygen in the blood

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Iatrogenic: Caused by a physician or by treatment

IDE: Investigational device exemption, the license to test an unapproved new medical device

Idiopathic: Of unknown cause

Idiosyncrasy: rare side effect of a drug; unusual reaction of a person to a drug

Immunoglobulin: A protein that makes antibodies

Immunosuppressive: Drug that suppresses the body’s immune response

Immunotherapy: Giving of drugs to help the body’s immune (protective) system; usually used to destroy cancer cells

Implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD): A type of pacemaker, which is a small electrical device implanted in the chest to regulate heart rhythm. The ICD includes a battery and one or two wires going to the heart. The ICD continuously senses heart rhythm and uses electricity to keep it from beating too fast or too slow.

IND: Investigational new drug, the license to test an unapproved new drug

Induction Phase: Beginning phase or stage of a treatment

Induration: Hardening

Infarct: Death of tissue because of lack of blood supply

Inflammation: swelling, redness, and pain in tissues caused by injury or damage

Influenza: the flu

Infusion: Introduction of a substance into the body, usually into the blood

Ingestion: Eating; taking by mouth

Intramuscular (IM) injection: injection of a substance into a muscle (e.g., upper arm or backside)

Intramuscular: Into the muscle; within the muscle

Intrathecal: Into the spinal fluid

Intravenous (IV) injection: injection of a substance into a vein

Intravenous (IV): Through the vein

Intravesical: In the bladder

Intubate: The placement of a tube into the airway

Invasive Procedure: Puncture, opening or cutting of the skin

Ischemia: Decreased oxygen in a tissue (usually because of decreased blood flow)

Isotope: A “family” of atoms (smallest unit of physical matter) that differ only by the number of neutrons in them. Isotopes are used to obtain measurements of substances in the body.

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Lactating: making milk

Lateral: toward or having to do with the side of the body

Lesion: abnormal area of tissue, such as a wound, sore, rash, or boil

Leukopenia: Low white blood cell count

Libido: sexual desire

Lipid Content: Fat content in the blood

Lipid: fat

Local Anesthesia: Creation of insensitivity to pain in a small, local area of the body

Localized: Restricted to one area, limited to one area

Lumen: The cavity of an organ or tube (e.g., Blood vessel)

Lymph node: Small gland found throughout the body, but most often under or behind joints, that removes bacteria and foreign particles. There is some evidence that cancer cells can be spread

Lymph system: The lymphatic system, which helps to remove such things as bacteria from the body, consists of a special fluid that contains white blood cells and that travels to small glands throughout the body through special lymphatic vessels. Although the lymph system is part of the body’s immune system, there is evidence that cancer can spread in the body when they get into the lymph system.

Lymphangiography: An x-ray of the lymph nodes or tissues after injecting dye into lymph vessels (for example, in feet)

Lymphocyte: A type of white blood cell important in immunity and defense against infection

Lymphoma: cancerous growth made up of lymph tissue

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Macro-: describes something that is large or long

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): the use of magnetic waves to look at soft tissues of the body

Malaise: A vague feeling of bodily discomfort, feeling bad

Malignancy: Cancer or other progressively enlarging and spreading tumor, usually fatal if not successfully treated

Mastectomy: surgery to remove a breast

Medulloblastoma: A type of brain tumor

Megaloblastosis: Change in red blood cells

Metabolism: The physical and chemical changes that take place in the body.

Metabolize: Process of breaking down substances in the cells to obtain energy

Metastasis: Spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another

MI: Myocardial infraction

Micro-: describes something that is small or delicate

Minimal: Slight

Minimize: Reduce

ML: change to teaspoonfuls or tablespoonfuls; 5 (4.929) ml = 1 teaspoonful; 15 (14.787) ml = 1 tablespoon.

Mobility: Ease of movement

Monitor: check on, keep track of, watch carefully

Morbidity: Illness or medical problem

Mortality: death or death rate

Motility: Ability to move

MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging. Body pictures created by using magnetic energy rather than x-ray energy. To have the scan, you will lie on a table that slides into the scanner, which is like a large tube.

MSv: 1 mSv = 100 mrem = 100 days of exposure to radiation given off by the environment (“background exposure”).

Mucoid: slimy

Mucosa: Moist lining of spaces in the body related to the organs involved in eating, breathing, reproducing, and removing waste from the body.

MUGA (multinucleated gated angiography): a scan that gives information on heart function; it requires an injection into the vein of a tiny amount of radioactive dye that can be seen by the scanner.

Multiple Project Assurance: Agreement between institutions and Office for Protection from Research Risks (OPRR) regarding institutional policies on the use of human subjects in research.

Myocardial infarction: Heart attack

Myocardial: Pertaining to the heart

Myopia: nearsightedness

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Nasogastric tube: tube that goes through the nose and into the stomach

NCI: The National Cancer Institute

Necrosis: death of tissue or skin

Neoplasia: Tumor, may be benign or malignant

Neuroblastoma: A cancer of nerve tissue

Neurological: Nervous system.

Neurologist: doctor who treats disorders of the central nervous system and nerves

Neurosis: mental and emotional disorder

Neutropenia: Decrease in the main part of the white blood cells

Neutrophil: A type of white blood cell that destroys germs that cause infections

NIH: The National Institute of Health

Non-Invasive: Not breaking, cutting or entering the skin

Nosocomial pneumonia: Pneumonia acquired in the hospital

Nyctalopia: difficulty seeing at night

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Obesity: Extremely overweight

Occlusion: Closing; obstruction

OHRP: The Office for Human Research Protection: Oversees research with humans to be sure that the Federal regulations are followed.

Oncology: The study of tumors or cancer

Ophthalmic: Pertaining to the eye

Ophthalmologist: doctor who treats eye disorders

Optic nerve: The nerve that carries information from the eye to the brain.

Optimal: Best, most useful

Oral administration: giving a drug by mouth

Orthodontist: dentist who treats teeth and jaw disorders

Orthopedic: Pertaining to the bone

Orthopedist: doctor who treats bone and joint disorders

Osteopetrosis: Rare bone disorder characterized by dense bone

Osteoporosis: Softening of the bones

Otologist: doctor who treats disorders of the ear

Otorhinolaryngologist: doctor who treats disorders of the ear, nose, and throat

Otoscope: tool used to look into the ear

Ovaries: Female sex glands

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Palliation: To relieve symptoms/effects of the disease.

Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas, a small gland behind the stomach that secretes substances such as insulin.

Pap test: microscope test used to detect virus infection of the cervix or cancer of the vagina, cervix, or lining of the uterus

Parenteral: Giving a substance by injection either into a vein or a muscle

Patency: Condition of being open

Pathogenesis: Causative mechanism in a disease

Pathogenic: causing disease

PER OS (PO): By mouth

Percutaneous: through the skin

Petechiae: Tiny red spots in the skin. They result from red blood leaking from capillaries into the skin.

Phalanx: finger or toe bone

Pharmacokinetics: The study of the way the body absorbs, distributes : and gets rid of the drug

Pharynx: throat

Phase I: Initial study of a new drug in humans to determine : limits of tolerance

Phase II: Second phase of study of a new drug intended to : obtain information on usefulness and safety

Phase III: Large scale trials to confirm and expand information : on safety and usefulness of a new drug

Phlebitis: Irritation or inflammation of the vein

Placebo Effect: Phenomenon of improvement seen with the administration of a placebo

Placebo: A substance of no medical value; an inactive substance

Platelets: Small particles in the blood that help with clotting

Podiatrist: foot doctor

Polydipsia: too much thirst

Polymalgia rheumatica: severe pain and stiffness in the muscles of areas such as the neck, chest, and hips.

Postpartum: after childbirth

Potentiate: Increase or multiply the effect of a drug or toxin : by administration of another drug or toxin at the same time

Potentiator: An agent that helps another agent work better

PRN: as needed

Proctologist: doctor who treats disorders of the rectum and anus

Prognosis: Outlook, probable outcomes

Prone: Lying on the stomach

Prophylaxis: A drug given to prevent disease or infection

Prospective Study: Study following patients forward in time

Prosthesis: artificial body part

Protein: A compound made by the body that is used in many different functions, such as immunity and digestion.

Protocol: plan of study

Proximal: nearest

Pruritus: itchiness

Psychologist: doctor who treats disorders of the mind, thought, and behavior

Psychosis: severe mental disorder; craziness

Psychosomatic: having a connection between the mind and physical symptoms

Pulmonary neoplasm: lung tumor

Pulmonary: Having to do with the lungs.

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Quality of life: How satisfied you are with your life in terms of how you feel and what you are able to do day to day.

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Radiation Therapy: X-ray or cobalt treatment

Random: by chance, like the flip of a coin

Randomization: Chance selection

RBC: Red blood cell

Recombinant: New combinations of genes

Reconstitution: Putting back together the original parts or elements

Refractory: Not responding to treatment

Regeneration: Regrowth of a structure or of lost tissue

Rehabilitation: Training and education to recover lost skills or learn new ones to compensate for the loss

Relapse: the return of a disease

Remission: Disappearance of evidence of cancer or other disease

Renal: having to do with the kidney

Replicable: Possible to duplicate

Resect: Remove or cut out surgically

Retina: The light-sensitive lining around the inside of the eye that is connected to the optic nerve.

Retrospective study: Study looking back over past experience

Retrospective: looking back over past experience

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Sarcoma: A type of cancer

Scapula: shoulder blade

Sedative: A drug to calm or make less anxious

Seminoma: A type of testes cancer

Sensor: Device that receives a signal, similar to a transistor radio but usually very small.

Sequentially: In a row

Serum: clear liquid part of blood

Shock: A reaction of the body to severe physical or emotional injury that affects the whole body. Shock causes a decrease in all vital processes such as blood flow, breathing and heart function, and, especially, a large decrease in blood pressure.

Shunt: artificial or natural channel running between two other channels

Single-blind trial: test or experiment in which the person giving treatment, but not the patient, knows which treatment the patient is receiving

Sleep apnea: breathing problems while sleeping

Somatic: having to do with the body

Spirometer: An instrument to measure the amount of air taken into and exhaled from the lungs

Staging: A determination of the extent of the disease

Stenosis: Narrowing of a duct, tube, or one of the valves in the heart

Sternum: breastbone

Stomatitis: Mouth sores – inflammation of the mouth

Stratify: Arrange in groups for analysis of results (e.g. Stratify by age, sex, etc.)

Stroke: Blockage or rupture of a blood vessel to the brain

Subclavian: Under the collarbone

Subcutaneous: Under the skin

Sublingual: under the tongue

Supportive Care: General medical care aimed at symptoms, not intended to improve or cure underlying disease

Symptomatic: Having symptoms

Syndrome: set of signs that happen at the same time in the body

Systolic: Top number in blood pressure, pressure during active contraction of the heart

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Teratogenic: Capable of causing malformations in fetuses

Testes: Male sex glands

Thorax: the chest

Thrombosis: Clotting

Titration: slow increase in drug dosage, guided by patient’s responses

T-Lymphocytes: Type of white blood cells

Tolerance: decrease in response to a fixed dosage of drug; over time, higher and higher doses of a drug are needed to get the desired effect

Topical anesthetic: applied to a certain area of the skin and reducing pain only in that area

Topical application: giving a medication by putting it directly on the skin

Topical: Surface, skin

Toxicity: any harmful effect of a drug or poison

Trachea: windpipe

Tranquilizer: drug used to control anxiety

Transdermal: through the skin

Trauma: Injury; wound

Treadmill: Walking machine used to measure heart function

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Ultrasound: This scanning device consists of computer and a transducer that is used to scan the body. A transducer is a small hand-held device about the size of a bar of soap that is attached to the scanner by a cord. A lubricating gel is spread on the skin over the area being examined, and then the transducer is pressed firmly against the skin to obtain images.

Uptake: Absorption of a substance by the body through tissue

Urologist: doctor who treats disorders of the urinary tract of men and women

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Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting; people taking it must have regular blood tests to determine that their blood does not clot too Valsalva maneuver: Attempting to breathe out with great force but not letting any air escape through your nose or mouth

Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting; people taking it must have regular blood tests to determine that their blood does not clot too Valvuloplasty: Repair of a valve, especially a heart valve

Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting; people taking it must have regular blood tests to determine that their blood does not clot too Varices: Enlarged veins

Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting; people taking it must have regular blood tests to determine that their blood does not clot too Vasospasm: Narrowing of the blood vessel

Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting; people taking it must have regular blood tests to determine that their blood does not clot too Vector: A carrier, usually an insect, that carries and transmits microorganisms that cause disease.

Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting; people taking it must have regular blood tests to determine that their blood does not clot too Venipuncture: Inserting a needle through the skin and sometimes into a vessel, usually to give a drug or fluids. Also called a “needle stick.”

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Warfarin: An anticoagulant drug that prevents blood clotting; people taking it must have regular blood tests to determine that their blood does not clot too readily or too slowly.

WBC: White blood cell

White-coat hypertension: Blood pressure that is elevated in a doctor’s office but is normal at home.

Will: A legal document that describes what should be done with a person’s assets after his or her death.

Withdrawal: A response to danger or stress characterized by apathy, lethargy, and depression; or the physical or psychological response to a sudden lack of an addictive substance such as alcohol or nicotine.

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